domingo, julho 10, 2016

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 10JUL16: AMAR É COMO TIRAR A CARTA DE CONDUÇÃO

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 10JUL16: AMAR É COMO TIRAR A CARTA DE CONDUÇÃO


«If monkeys have taught us anything, it’s that you’ve got to learn how to love before you learn how to live.» (Harry Harlow, This Week, March 3, 1961)
(Se os macacos nos ensinam alguma coisa, é que temos de aprender a amar antes de aprendermos a viver)

«A vida é como andar de bicicleta - explicou um dia Einstein ao filho -, para manteres o equilíbrio tens de continuar a pedalar.» Eu direi: «Amar é como aprender a conduzir, se depois de tirares a carta de condução, não continuares a praticar, vais acabar por esquecer.» Mais, acabamos por ter medo da simples ideia de voltar a pegar num carro!
Dramaticamente, a história pessoal de Harry Harlow será exemplo agudo da desaprendizagem do amor - pelos outros e por si mesmo; absurdamente, depois dos conhecimentos tão preciosos que a sua vida de investigador nos trouxe a todos! Que terá corrido mal?... A falta de equilíbrio? O excesso de velocidade num condutor esquecido dos gestos básicos?...
«The nature of love is about paying attention to the people who matter, about still giving when you are too tired to give. Be a mother who listens, a father who cuddles, a friend who calls back, a helping neighbor, a loving child.» (1)
(A natureza do amor tem a ver com dar atenção às pessoas que verdadeiramente importam; tem a ver com continuar a dar mesmo quando estamos demasiadamente cansados de dar. Ser a mãe que escuta os filhos, ser o pai que pega nos filhos ao colo e lhes dá mimos, ser o amigo que volta a ligar, ser o vizinho colaborador, ser uma criança carinhosa)
 Harlow, ainda a propósito do amor, e de tudo o que dizemos sobre o tema, deixa-nos um aviso, numa carta esctrita a um amigo: «Perhaps one should always be modest when talking about love.» (Talvez tenhamos de ser sempre modestos quando falamos de amor)
________________________
(1)  "The nature of love is about paying attention to the people who matter, about still giving when you are too tired to give. Be a mother who listens, a father who cuddles, a friend who calls back, a helping neighbor, a loving child. That emphasis on love in our everyday lives may be the best of that quiet revolution in psychology, the one that changed the way we think about love and relationship almost without our noticing that had happened. We take for granted now that parents should hug their children, that relationships are worth the time, that taking care of each other is part of the good life. It is such a good foundation that it’s almost astonishing to consider how recent it is. For that foundation under our feet we owe a debt to Harry Harlow and to all the scientists who believed and worked toward a psychology of the heart. At the end, in Harry’s handiwork, there’s nothing sentimental about love, no sunlit clouds and glory notes—it’s a substantial, earthbound connection, grounded in effort, kindness, and decency. Learning to love, Harry liked to say, is really about learning to live. Perhaps everyday affection seems a small facet of love. Perhaps, though, it is the modest, steady responses that see us through day after day, that stretch into a life of close and loving relationships. Or, as Harry Harlow wrote to a friend, “Perhaps one should always be modest when talking about love.”" Deborah Blum, 2002, 2011. Love at Goon Park: Harry Harlow and the Science of Affection, Perseus Publishing,
 

domingo, julho 03, 2016

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 03JUL16: A FILOSOFIA DO CANDEEIRO

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 03JUL16: A FILOSOFIA DO CANDEEIRO


"O candeeiro não é luz, não é electricidade, mas aceita, dentro de
Foi assim que conheci Agostinho da Silva: a trocar mimos com o seu gato.
si, aquilo que ele não é.
» (Agostinho da Silva, recordado por Inácio Fiadeiro, in "In Memoriam de Agostinho da Silva, 100 anos, 150 nomes", 2006. Ed. Zéfiro, p. 190)

O meu querido colega e amigo Inácio Fiadeiro teve o privilégio e conhecer e privar com o Professor Agostinho da Silva, privilégio esse que eu pude também saborear um pouco. O Inácio deixou o seu testemunho no in Memoriam do notável Professor, num pequeno mas muito delicioso texto, construído de forma muito eficaz à volta de umas quantas memórias pontuais. O testemunho do Inácio acaba assim:
«Por último disse: "Já que provavelmente é a última vez que nos vemos aqui, gostava de lhe perguntar se, como acupunctor e psicólogo, sabia como as pessoas podem mudar. Disse que não, e ele respondeu, usando a filosofia do candeeiro: "O candeeiro não é luz, não é electricidade, mas aceita, dentro de si, aquilo que ele não é." Assim nos despedimos, com toda a calma, paz, brilho e força que sempre tinha, sempre estimulando o viver para ser.»
Mais nada tenho a acrescentar.

domingo, junho 26, 2016

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 26JUn16: ESTAMOS A MATAR OS SONHOS DOS NOSSOS FILHOS

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 26JUn16: ESTAMOS A MATAR OS SONHOS DOS NOSSOS FILHOS

«Estou enojado com a educação escolar de hoje, que é uma
fábrica de incultos sem respeito pela memória. [...] Quando era criança, existia a possibilidade de cometer grandes erros. Quem não tiver a liberdade de errar na juventude, nunca se tornará um ser humano completo.» (George Steiner, Visão, n.º 1218, edição 7 a 13/o7/2916, pp.10-12)

Noutro apontamento falarei sobre o que George Steiner diz nesta entrevista sobre a memória.
Por agora quero centrar-me no eco do seu pensamento sobre a educação e o futuro das gerações mais jovens, as que sucessivamente as gerações mais velhas vão educando.
  1. Olhando a educação oficial que grassa pelo Mundo, estou inteiramente de acordo com Steiner: no nosso País, aponto claramente o dedo a decisores oficiais, tais como: Maria de Lurdes Rodrigues, Isabel Alçada, Nuno Crato, mais outras eminências pardas da Educação e do Ensino oficial, e as suas equipas de "sábios" e "especialistas".
  2. É verdade, esquecemo-nos que, afinal... errar é humano!
  3. Há erros das crianças e dos jovens que, oficialmente, se foram tornando intoleráveis nas escolas e que complexos regulamentos e procedimentos administrativos e burocráticos disfarçam por baixo do manto diáfano da "democracia tolerante" e das perversas "sucessivas oportunidades" dadas aos alunos faltosos e suas famílias
  4. A figura dos gabinetes de disciplina em tantas escolas acumula tantas e tantas histórias absurdas e surreais!...
  5. Entretanto, à custa de tantas horas subtraídas aos direitos da família e do descanso pessoal, muitos professores e directores de turma resistem e insistem em autênticas acrobacias pedagógicas para manter o grande sentido de humanidade na relação pessoal com os seus alunos, naquela dimensão que verdadeiramente alimenta os afectos positivos e promove os valores do respeito pelo outro, do companheirismo e da solidariedade.
«Muitos dizem que as utopias são idiotices. Mas, em qualquer caso, serão idiotices vitais. Um professor que não deixa os seus alunos pensar em utopias e errar é um péssimo professor.» (p. 11)
George Steiner não é um oráculo a quem tudo se pergunte e a tudo responda com saber consolidado.
Terá 12000 livros na sua biblioteca, o que me faz pensar que, ou faltam-lhe, mesmo assim, alguns (bons) livros sobre Psicanálise, ou tem-nos lá mas nunca os leu - é que o que ele diz na entrevista sobre a Psicanálise é de um muito lamentável, irritado e estereotipado preconceito. Enfim, é o seu direito a errar; e, como diz o Povo, aprender até morrer.
[texto publicado em 07Jul2016]

segunda-feira, junho 06, 2016

DIA D - DIA TERRÍVEL, DE MORTE E LIBERTAÇÃO

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 06JUN16: DIA D -DIA TERRÍVEL, DE MORTE E LIBERTAÇÃO


"I'm glad I'm here. I'd hate to miss what is probably the biggest
battle that will ever happen to us» (anonimous allied soldier, Voices from D-Day, 2014, p. 75)
«Estou contente por estar aqui. Não ia gostar nada de ter falhado a batalha que é, provavelmente, a maior que alguma vez nos possa acontecer.»
 «A cow stands looking from a few yards away. She seems curious but not excited. There is no wind, so the chute collaps quietly. Unsnap the harness and get the rifle out of its boot. This is done quickly, then the question "Where am I and where is everyone else?» (John Houston, da 101.ª divisão americana aerotransportada, Voices from D-Day, 2014, p. 81-2)
«Uma vaca olha-me ali a alguns metros de distância. Parece curiosa, mas não parece nervosa. Não há vento, de modo que o para-quedas assenta no chão suavemente. Desaperto o arnês e tiro a espingarda da bolsa. Faço isso tudo rapidamente, e depois ponho-me a pergunta: "Onde estou eu e onde estão os outros todos?»

domingo, maio 29, 2016

[E]migração, analfabetismo, saber popular

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 29MAI16:[E]MIGRAÇÃO, ANALFABETISMO, SABER POPULAR
Para tentar salvar o que ainda é possível salvar

"desaparece o analfabetismo, considerado como uma tara e certamente inadequado à vida moderna, mas com ele desaparece também um "saber popular" fundado na tradição oral, tesouro precioso que nada poderá substituir» (Orlando Ribeiro, Mediterrâneo, Ambiente e Tradição, 3.ª edição, FCG, 2011, p. 33)
«Emigra-se para fugir à miséria e não para a perpetuar. A saudade da terra combate-se com as satisfações do êxito: dinheiro, conforto, às vezes ostentação, sempre menos trabalho e maior lucro... [...] Assim se vai criando outra mentalidade: desaparece o analfabetismo, considerado como uma tara e certamente inadequado à vida moderna, mas com ele desaparece também um "saber popular" fundado na tradição oral, tesouro precioso que nada poderá substituir; a telefonia, o cinema e a televisão, ainda mais do que o jornal, que exige esforço de leitura, penetram cada vez mais longe, matraqueando as seduções de um mundo novo e igual. Nos países muçulmanos a coca-cola, favorecida pele interdição ritual das bebidas alcoólicas e por um desenho atraente e decorativo das letras árabes com que se escreve, concorre com o chá ou o café tradicionais. Na estepe africana, o pastor acompanha os rebanhos ouvindo no transistor as melopeias que, em criança, aprendera a entoar; mas, recebendo ao mesmo tempo notícias de todo o mundo, deixa de estar confinado ao horizonte monótono dos seus terrenos de pastagem e da sua vida de guardador de gado.» Assim escreveu Orlando Ribeiro, num texto inicialmente publicado em 1962 e depois fixado em 1985, 

sábado, maio 14, 2016

As minhas aulas vistas por um perito da Educação da União Europeia


Journal: Observation visits Journal: Observation visits
Blogs »
Involving your students and making the most of learning beyond the lesson time.
Eça de Queirós has been identified as the Advanced Secondary School in Portugal for the LSL Project. Set in
socio-economic status; this school is a haven for the 1047 students and local community it serves. We begin with a tour of the school and meet one of the teachers who gives me an olive branch as a welcome to the school – the school is set in an area called “Olivais” and there are some olive trees nearby. Students enter/exit the school using a card GIAE online. This is particularly useful as the campus is open for long hours of the day and for adult learning. Students can also register their attendance in the lesson too.  Whilst most of the school is contained within one large building, the gym is in a separate building at the side. Inside the main building, the school also has a shop where students can buy all their stationery and necessities for their projects. 
an area surrounded by high rise apartments and largely lower
Eҫa de Queirós  was a famous writer and along with a huge portrait of the author, the corridors are also elegantly marked with the names of his works. I do find it fascinating to learn how the name of the school runs deep within the philosophy, expectation and approach. It is a great reminder of how we can inspire the students with the displays too. This school has student artwork on fairly large canvases; the displays are finished pieces of high quality and show a distinct pride. 
This school also has a very active TV channel (Eҫa TV) that is coordinated by a member of staff and approximately 8-10 student volunteers. The students regularly try to capture learning and teaching or interview visitors to the school. I think it would be great to see some of our LSL schools working with others on a European or even international broadcast.
The link observation visit to Portugal is particularly significant because both Advanced schools are directed by a single principal, the schools work as part of a cluster of 3 schools that all have the same board of directors to provide for approximately 2000 students in total. The schools have an established team that collaborate on the curriculum and technology is integral to these developments continually supporting whole school development. It also demands a lot of technical support and I can’t fail to notice how most of this rests on one person’s shoulders.
  • Who is responsible for the technical support in your school?
  • How do you provide this?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of managed services?
  • Are there any alternative solutions for technical support? #lsl_eu
The first lesson today is Psychology; here the 12th grade students are learning about mental processes. The teacher begins by opening his Facebook page; finding the “Group” and highlighting the tasks that the students have been asked to do in preparation for the lesson.   The teacher asks one of the students to come to the front and write the key mental processes that they have been learning about: Concentration, Attention, Perception, Recall, Intelligence and Memory. The teacher then considers with the students how certain events or ideas can become distorted with illusions or hallucinations. The teacher selects some of the students to share their ideas with the whole class that they have already posted on Facebook. 
In the next part of the lesson, the teacher asks one of the students to read aloud a piece of text from a book by Antonio Damasio about conscience, and the class consider the question “What difference does it make when people sleep or when they wake up?” “How is their enthusiasm affected?
The students also learn from the discussion with the teacher that we behave in certain ways because of the things that have happened to us. The teacher skilfully encourages the further reading of the text, but equally highlights some online examples in an attempt to satisfy the different learning needs of all the students. He demonstrates to the students how technology is just one of the resources that will help them with their learning, but he also reminds the students that some of the key points are still available in their course textbook. (Without being dependent on it!) One student presents some anamorphic illusions that he has found on Youtube, and there is the moment of realisation as the students understand from the video that our perceptions can be very different. This lesson demonstrates how the technology has become integral to the learning and the students have an expectation that they will need to access the technology during the lesson, but they have a growing independence to access a range of resources. Using Facebook as a tool has also allowed the learning to continue beyond the 90 minutes of time with the teacher and provided extended opportunities for communication and dialogue. It enables the students to continue to interact with their learning around the subject.
The teacher is trying to balance between traditional and innovative settings of learning; Facebook allows the teacher to provide a collegial environment between the classroom environment and personal study. By encouraging the students to share their learning, it stimulates continued discussion and promotes self-study. The teacher believes it helps to “promote self and group regulation.” However, it doesn’t work for all students so the teacher has to have other ways of communicating with the students too.
  • How do you communicate with your students beyond the lesson time?
  • How do you promote opportunities for continuous learning?
  • Have you used Facebook with your students?
  • How do you use Facebook with your students?
  • What are the advantages of using Facebook?
  • What are the disadvantages?
  • What similar tools do you use instead/as well?
The second lesson is Mathematics with LSL lead teacher Maria-Teresa Godhino. In today’s lesson, the students are learning about vectors and how to write the components of a vector, as well as the co-ordinates.   The teacher uses the interactive whiteboard to demonstrate to the students how to calculate the numbers.  Maria-Teresa begins by modelling the processes and then asks some students to show the class how to calculate the answers to some of the questions.  The teacher also has an e-book version of the students textbook, this does allow the teacher to play short video clips demonstrating vectors and determining the co-ordinates. However, the teacher is not dependent on this, and equally uses the Promethean Interactive Whiteboard and the ActivInspire Software to demonstrate additional examples. She identifies some students to go the IWB and solve some additional challenges. As one student is not sure, the others positively support him and correct him suggesting what the answer should be and why.    The teacher and the students also use Geogebra and this then means that the students have seen vectors in three different pieces of software and they can explore further in their own time to build their understanding. The focus remains on the mathematical learning and not on the use of the software.
  • How often do you ask your students to demonstrate?
  • Have you tried recording small video clips of some of the students demonstrating how to solve mathematical problems? 
The other students will enjoy watching them and may find it more interesting to learn from their peers. It will also give the students a chance to look at different strategies used by people in the same class. As a teacher it can give you the chance to see how your students have worked something out and maybe spot where they need a little bit more help too!
  • If you are using a textbook for the lesson – how do you know that your individual students are challenged?
It’s a long day in secondary school for students in Portugal, with some classes not finishing until 6pm. However, if today is anything to go by, it would seem they are so involved with their lessons; they don’t have time to think about it!

segunda-feira, abril 11, 2016

O QUE DEFINE UMA ESCOLA?

Psicologia - Frase da semana, 10ABR16: O QUE DEFINE UMA ESCOLA?


"A Educação é uma forma de viver hoje, não é a preparação para
se viver amanhã."

"Education is a process of living and not a preparation for future living.John Dewey

O seguinte texto é de David Gamberg, e é especialmente recomendado por Sir Ken Robinson.
Pessoalmente, gosto muito do texto.
Words matter. They matter in all aspects of life, especially when we are talking about how to define a school. Of course, brick and mortar are only a small part of the story. The academic and emotional climate, both inside and outside the physical space, gets us closer to an understanding of what forms the basis of any school. Throughout our country, we have many opinions, positions, and reform efforts competing to control the narrative not only of what defines a school, but also, more significantly, of what it means to be educated in 2016 and beyond.
My daily travels in the schoolhouse as a superintendent give me an inside look at what constitutes a school. I am fortunate that my professional work over the last 30 years has put me inside dozens of schools and in contact with hundreds of educators, scholars, and support staff. I have also had the good fortune to be in the company of thousands of children and their families. No, I do not consider myself an expert on all things that define a school. I do, however, have a vested interest in seeing that the schools of today and those that are created in the future are shaped with the care and respect they so richly deserve.
The call to have children as young as 8 or 9 years old "college- and career-ready" does not create the same narrative as building a sound foundation in childhood filled with play and creativity. Among the many other more important ways to engage the hearts and minds of our youngest students, we must promote the childhood experience in all its wonder.
Schools have always existed as an expression of how a given community values its children, and how a society looks at the future—a covenant handed down from one generation to the next. The problems that beset our social, political, and economic well-being as a nation are, in fact, not born at the doorsteps of our schools. They are certainly not derived exclusively from the province of our public schools. The crumbling roads, bridges, and tunnels of the infrastructure that is the lifeblood of a thriving economy demand our attention, as does the scourge of substance abuse wreaking havoc on families of every demographic group.
Local neighborhood and even family issues that confront all generations, from toddlers to senior citizens, are ever-present in our daily lives. If schools do play a part in shaping our future—and I believe they do—how we articulate the issues matters as much as how we marshal the will and resources to meet these challenges.
The calls to shutter schools, to replace and dismantle them, are being offered by those with a variety of other interests. These are not the solutions we should accept. They create a hostile dialogue that reflects the worst in our democratic discourse. In the last 10 years, we have witnessed a rapid decline in civility, an unfettered belligerent approach to the questions central to the teaching and learning process.
Words matter in how we discuss our schools and the issues that confront all communities. How this conversation occurs has changed in recent decades across the entire country, from small rural towns to large suburban and urban communities. Technology affords us wonderful ways to gather data points that could promote change, but it may still fail to foster a deliberative and thoughtful dialogue regarding the seeds of our problems. The most basic elements of our humanity must not get lost in the pursuit of a faster, data-driven decisionmaking process. Such is a key element of our current fascination with a punitive, high-stakes testing environment designed to sort and select students and teachers.
So, what truly defines a school? For me, the exchange between child and adult is at the heart of it. That exchange may be subtle or vigorous—not rigorous. Rigor, which shares roots with the Latin rigor mortis, implies severity, rigidity, and stiffness—all connotations that restrict the learner and the learning process—while vigor implies energy and dynamism.
Yes, words matter. The best learning occurs when both teacher and student are in pursuit of a deeper understanding. It is a quest that is based on love, one that is filled with authentic, joyful, challenging, and impactful experiences. A school is a place of respect and wonder.
The search to create, discover, reveal, and share is an unending journey that occurs in the best of our schools: the child immersed in beautiful poetry, the student acquiring the skill of using a watercolor-paint brush, the rendering of a museum-quality display of artifacts. Scientific experiments, research papers, debates, and discussions centered on classic literature are the means through which students explore and discover ideas. Unpacking the essential elements of contemporary issues and having students learn to take responsibility for their actions coalesce to teach valuable lessons that extend beyond the school walls. Students who present their learning before a panel of adjudicators and get so immersed that they lose track of time are then at their optimal disposition to learn. No reward or punishment necessary.
All members of a community, from custodians to teachers and principals to kindergartners, are the learners of a true school. A climate of fear and hostility, or a tone of acrimony and mistrust, will yield neither a school that serves the needs of children nor the globally competitive country that some imagine will arrive when we replace the old with the new. Schools of the future—no matter their size, technological sophistication, or cost-effectiveness—should always begin with the best qualities of our humanity.
We must choose our words carefully in this fight. We must strive to retain the core values that define a school as a place that upholds the tenets of our democracy and cares about people, rather than a place that efficiently manages the system or pits stakeholders against one another.
"Education," in the words of John Dewey, "is a process of living and not a preparation for future living."